Impact of CEO Attributes on organization performance
1 . 1 Background of the study
As last 10 years, well advertised scams in the corporate community such like Enron and WorldCom have ignited a popular debate around the corporate governance which is " the system through which companies are aimed and controlled" (Cadbury Committee, 1992). The mishaps caused by the fragile corporate governance structure possess caused mayhem in the corporate and business world world wide. Corporate governance is displayed by general set of persuits, regulations, behaviors, and laws and regulations that figure out how a firm ought to be run as to maximize the wealth of its stockholders. Therefore , in larger sense, corporate governance is maximizing the shareholder's benefit by ensuring methods which are fair with regard to almost all stakeholders, buyers, employees, shareholders, vendors, the government and the society-at-large. In this circumstance, agency theory which was recommended by Jensen and Meckling (1976) has dominated the literature. The theory proposes a conflict from the interest among stock cases and supervision of the company where management of the firm might strive to serve self-interest rather than the hobbies of the investors. This conflict with client positions may give surge to the company costs and mitigating such costs or good corporate and business governance could possibly be beneficial for the shareholder's in two ways: initial it could lead towards a greater stock cost due to the expectation of the stockholders that less cash flows can be wasted by the managers and profits or dividends which usually would be given away to them in the future will be higher (La Porta et al., 2002; Jensen and Meckling, 1976); secondly, the monitoring costs are not built into the cost of capital and business has cheaper of capital (Shleifer & Vishny, 1997). Thus, reduction of the organization costs and improvement from the corporate governance mechanism is definitely expected to possess a positive impact on the profitability and value with the firm. CEO is the best managerial situation in an business and all the managerial electrical power is concentrated from this position. It can influence the performance of the firm through various aspects i. at the. different attributes of CEO e. g. turnover, electrical power, duality, settlement & board size electronic. g. While proposed by Weisbach (1994) & kaplan & Minton (2006), we have a significant & stronger regards between CEO turnover & the functionality of a organization. In the proof of Iqbal, Ahmed & Jani (2013), board with more non-executive directors will be able to influence the firm efficiency. Thus, CEO is the most important person within firm in framework of corporate and business governance and agency issue. Much of the empirical work could possibly be found within the domain of the corporate governance which reinforces the central position from the CEO in paradigm of organizational efficiency. Testable building in this regard emphasis more on the CEO Powers, his reimbursement, tenure while using organization, his turnover and his interests when it comes to ownership in the company. Present study is also an effort to extent ligature which seeks to determine the impact of CEO characteristics within the performance in the organization within the domain name of company governance. 1 . 2 Business governance in Pakistan
The Enron failure in 2001 indicated towards a weakened mechanism of corporate governance. The issues painful with further governance failures like WorldCom (the Country's second major long distance telecommunications company) in 2002 (Lyke & Jickling, 2002). Such scams got widespread attention and soon failures in the developing and appearing economies like India also emerged. The situation of Satyam in 2009 and Vodafone in 2007 would be the examples of written about corporate scams of India (See, Caraballo, Cheerla & Jafari, 2010; Mukherjee, 2013). Pakistan also comes in the list of developing rising economies and in the surge of business governance period, the code of corporate governance was created in the year of 2002 (Javid & Iqbal, 2010) as then developments have been made in the framework to...
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