Solar panels

 Solar cells Article

PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS: RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS

Prog. Photovolt: Vaca. Appl. (2012)

Published on the net in Wiley Online Catalogue (wileyonlinelibrary. com). DOI: twelve. 1002/pip. 1255

PAPER PROVIDED AT 26TH EU PVSEC, HAMBURG, PHILIPPINES 2011

Solar cell generations over forty percent efficiency

R. R. King*, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. -Q. Liu, Electronic. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, 3rd there’s r. K. Smith, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law and N. They would. Karam

Spectrolab, Inc., 12500 Gladstone Ave, Sylmar, CA 91342, UNITED STATES

ABSTRACT

Multijunction III-V concentrator cells of several different types have demonstrated photo voltaic conversion efficiency over forty percent since 06\, and signify the only third-generation photovoltaic technology to enter business power technology markets until now. The next level of photo voltaic cell efficiency improvement, via 40% to 50%-efficient production cells, is perhaps the most important yet, since it is within this selection that concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems could become the lowest cost option for sun electricity, contending with typical power era without govt subsidies. The impact of 40% and 50% cell efficiency on cost effective geographic areas for CPV systems is calculated in the continental ALL OF US, Europe, and North The african continent. We take a scientific look at a progression of multijunction cellular architectures that could take us up to 50% efficiency, employing modeling grounded in well-characterized solar cellular materials systems of today's 40% cellular material, discussing the theoretical, elements science, and manufacturing concerns for the most appealing approaches. The consequences of varying solar power spectrum and current balance on strength production in 4-junction, 5-junction, and 6-junction terrestrial concentrator cells will be shown to be visible, but are far outweighed by increased efficiency of these advanced cell designs. Production efficiency distributions in the last five generations of terrestrial concentrator solar cells will be discussed. Fresh results are proven for a extremely manufacturable, straight metamorphic 3-junction GaInP/GaInAs/Ge solar cell with 41. 6% efficiency independently confirmed by 484 suns (48. 5 W/cm2) (AM1. 5D, ASTM G173-03, 25 C), the greatest demonstrated for the cell of this type needing a single metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy growth work. Copyright © 2012 David Wiley & Sons, Ltd. KEYWORDS

multijunction; high efficiency; concentrator; III-V; metamorphic; 4-junction, 5-junction, 6-junction; energy development; cost building *Correspondence

Richard King, Spectrolab, Inc., 12500 Gladstone Volatil, Sylmar, CALIFORNIA 91342, USA. E-mail: [email protected] com

Received 2 September 2011; Modified 2 November 2011; Accepted 22 The fall of 2011

1 . INTRODUCTION

Multijunction III-V concentrator cells have highest

energy conversion efficiency of any kind of solar cellular technology,

with several different types of cellular architecture reaching

over 40% efficiency seeing that 2006 [1–7]. These kinds of cells signify the only third-generation photovoltaic technology to enter business power technology markets up to now,

and still demonstrate what is possible for various other

emerging sun cell technologies that split the sun's

spectrum in to discrete slices for larger efficiency, this kind of

as flat-plate multijunction polycrystalline semiconductor

cells, tandem organic solar cells, and spectral breaking

optical systems.

III-V multijunction concentrator cells using these kinds of highefficiency improvements are now by far the major type of solar panels used in concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) solar

electric power systems, because of their dramatic efficiency advantages. Copyright laws © 2012 John Wiley & Daughters, Ltd.

Photovoltaics have grown for a phenomenal rate of over 40%

each year for the last 10 years, but much of this progress has been sustained by significant government subsidies. To become a

technology that genuinely changes the way the global community

generates the majority of its electrical energy, photovoltaics will end up too large to be helped considerably by financing from virtually any

government, and can need...

References: Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. (2012) В© 2012 Steve Wiley & Sons, Limited.

Solar Junction press release, Apr 14, 2011, Diandra

Weldon,

Cell Efficiency, June one particular, 2011, https://eere-exchange.

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